Articles / Wooden architecture

Wooden architecture

Subject / Architecture

Wooden architecture. In the east and north-east of the Leningrad Oblast (Boksitogorsk, Podporozhye, Lodeynoye Pole districts) there are many preserved wooden building that are typical for the Russian North: izbas (Russian traditional wooden peasant dwelling), barns, haylofts, bathhouses, threshing floors, threshing barns, farm-yards, mills. Foundations of these kinds of houses were rectangular log frame (klet) which can be add on new log frames in case of need to enlarge the dwelling. Additional ground log frames (basements) were built for protection from snowdrifts and high water. Roofs of dwellings were "samtsovaya" (a wooden roof in a Russian izba with hook rafters carrying the gutter) or on rafters (on wooden gable roof rafters that are cut into top joists of a log cabin). Wooden churches that excel by their proportions are of extensive interest on our days. It was achieved with placing a tapering facet vosmerik (octagonal frame), that is completed with a high pyramidal roof, on a rectangular log frame (chetverik). Sometimes churches were built a "round" form with decahedral log frame (for example: the Resurrection Church in the village of Kurpovo of the Podporozhye District). Sometimes rectangular log frames overroofed with "bochka" (a roof with a section like a pointed horseshoe) with ogee top of the roof (the Church of the Great Martyr Dmitry Solunsky in the village of Shcheleyki in the Podporozhye District). The well-decorated church top with the traditional five bulbous domes that are roofed with shingles (oblong carved small planks) are typical of northen churches. The most famous churches are the Church of the Presentation of Our Lord Jesus Crist in the Temple in the village of Yuksovichi (the beginning of the 16th century) and the Church of the Nativity of the Virgin Mary in the village of Gimreka (the second half of the 17th century), the Church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker in the village of Sogintsi (the beginning of the 18th century) and many others. According to the pre-revolutionary administrative division they were located on the territory of the Olonets Gubernia (a part of Obonezhye Pyatina ("Fifth") of the Veliky Novgorod Lands from the 15th to 16th centuries , from 1649 it was Olonets Province; now it is in the Podporozhye District). From 1926 to 1929 on the territory of the present-day Leningrad Oblast research expeditions (V.I. Ravdonikas and others) were made. The expeditions found out some interesting peasant houses in Podporozhye Town and Voznesenye Urban Settlement. From 1935 to 1936 lists of the preserved decorative art works and wall-paintings of 32 church architectural sights and their technological description were compiled. During the years of the World War II the significant part of the found architectural sights were destroyed as a result of fires and demolishing, it was stated by the expeditions in the oblast in 1946 and 1951 (architects B.A. Smirnov, S.V. Popova-Gunich and others). According to the decision of the Academic Council on Protection of Monuments of Lengorispolkom (Leningrad Oblast Executive Committee) from 1968 expeditions, that revealed monuments of wooden architecture, were made every year. For three years more than 150 objects was revealed and described. The systematic inventory of buildings of architectural historic interest in districts were made by the Leningrad Branch of the Scientific Research Institute Spetsproektrestovratsiya. The project of the Architectural Ethnographical Conservation Area Museum (the architect- restorer M.I. Kolyada with collaboration of M.A. Dementyeva I.A. Khaustova) was developed. The place for the museum was chosen on the right bank of the Neva River near the forest park "Nevsky". The project realization was delayed because of different reasons, but in 2005 works were resumed and at the same time the reconstruction of the Zinovyev's wooden house in the estate "Bogoslovka" was started. During 1973 - 1976 the restoration of the tent-shaped church with hexahedral log frame of the bell-tower in the village of Sogintsi was made. From 1972 to 1983 the Church of the Nativity of the Virgin Mary in the village of Gimreka was restored, it is the tent-shaped church with columns made of two vosmerics (octagonal blocks) on chetveric (quadrangular block), that is typical for the Onega Region (Obonezhye). Some of settlements in the East of the oblast (for example: the village of Krasny Bor in the Boksitogorsk District) are complex of various residential buildings and barns that reflect features of traditional peasant life and are inseparably linked with the locality. Decorative carving of podzors (carved board along the edge of the roof), ridges and window surrounds that was widely used in village life in the 19th century and it is preserved on wooden houses in the southern districts (the Luga and Gatchina districts) of the oblast. The complex of houses of the 1880-90s in the village of Lampovo of the Gatchina District (they are houses of Fedorov, Pavlova, Yermolayev, Klimentyeva and others) are especially remarkable. Many houses registered in the wooden houses list were burned in the period of the 1990-2000s as a result of wrong maintenance and in the absence of owners' obligations. Traditions of wooden architecture are stylized in the entertaining commercial complex of the ethnic village of Verkhniye Mandrogi.

Piryutko, Yuri Minayevich

Dementyeva, M.A.
Khaustova, Irena Aleksandrovna
Kolyada, Mark Ivanovich
Popova-Gunich, Sophia Vasilyevna
Ravdonikas, Vladislav Iosifovich
Smirnov, B.A.
Zinovyevs, the

Leningrad Oblast, the/Boksitogorsk District
Leningrad Oblast, the/Gatchina District
Leningrad Oblast, the/Podporozhye District/Gimreka Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Boksitogorsk District/Krasniy Bor Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Podporozhye District/Kurpovo Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Gatchina District/Lampovo Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Lodeynoye Pole District
Leningrad Oblast, the/Luga District
Historical Toponyms/Novgorod Land/Obonezhskaya Pyatina ("Fifth") (The territory of Novgorod Land located on the shores of White Sea, Ladoga and Onega lakes )
Historical Toponyms/Olonets Gubernia (Province)
Leningrad Oblast, the/Podporozhye District
Leningrad Oblast, the/Podporozhye District/Podporozhye Town
Leningrad Oblast, the/Podporozhye District/Shcheleyki Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Podporozhye District/Sogintsi Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Podporozhye District/Verkhniye Mandrogi Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Podporozhye District/Voznesenye Urban Settlement

Андреева Л.В., Коляда М.И., Кондратьева Е.В. По Ленинградской области – Л.: Лениздат, 1978
Гоголицын Ю.М., Иванова Т.М. Архитектурная старина: Памятники зодчества Ленинградской обл. Л., 1979., С.197-229
Ополовников А.В. Реставрация памятников народного зодчества. М.: Стройиздат, 1974., С.197-229

Subject Index
Bogoslovka, a country estate
"Nevsky", a wooded park
The Cathedral of the Nativity of the Mother of God (Gimreka Village, Podporozhsky District)
The Church of St. Demetrius Thessalonica, Great Martyr (Shcheleiki Village, Podporozhsky District)
The Church of St. George the Victorius, Great Martyr (Yuksovichi Village, Podporozhsky Village)
The Church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker (Sogintsy Village, Podporozhsky District)