Articles / Toponymia of the Leningrad Oblast, the

Toponymia of the Leningrad Oblast, the

Subject / Local studies/Toponymy

The leningrad Oblast toponymia. Toponymia is the combination of toponyms, proper names of geographical objects. There are several kinds of toponyms: hydronym, a name of water object; oikonym, a name of a settlement; horonym, an element of relief; choronym, a name of the territory; urbanonym (urbonym), a name if a town/city object; dromonym, a name of way of connection; agroonym, a name of ground area; drimonym, a name of a forest area; etc. Also there is the more fractional classification of toponyms depending on the nature of the object. The totality of toponyms, located on the definite territory, makes the toponymia environment. Toponymia studies toponyms, founds the rules of their emergence, development and functioning. Toponymia transmits important cultural and historic information and is the a source used in history, ethnography and linguistics. Nature realities, features of developing the territory, features of people's mentality and world view, ethnic cultural and language contacts and ideology are reflected in the toponymia. Toponyms (Names of places) of the Leningrad Oblast have different ages and come from languages both being now and lost. The most ancient toponyms are kept in names of important geographic objects, they are mostly the names of enough large water reservoirs. By the present days some of them cannot be etymologized, i.e. their origin cannot be determined. Names of rivers Shoksha, Narva, Syas, Yavosma, Ragusha, Oredezh are from the toponyms on the territory of the Leningrad Oblast. They are likely the most ancient names in the region. In the local names there are ethnonyms known from chronicles and other Middle-Age sources: Varangian (Varegovo), Kobyages (Kolbezhitsi), Chud (Chudskaya Rudnitsa) and others. Languages of the Baltic, Finnish and Slav populations have played the most important role in forming the toponyms system. Now there is a number of areas where Baltic and Finnish toponyms is prevailed . It is the southern part of the Karelian Isthmus and the the East and the North-East of the Leningrad Oblast, although they can be met practically in all districts of the oblast. Geographic names of the Baltic origin are extended less. They can be met in the southern oblast districts (Tosna, Bebro, Retomlya, Sitomlya). Swedish toponyms, for example: Vyborg, are kept in the Karelian Isthmus included in the Swedish Kingdom during some centuries. Settlements with German names (Mariyenhof, Mariyenburg, Schlusselburg) were appeared from 18th century, settlements with Estonian names (Uzigonti, Edazi, Myza) were appeared in the 19th-20th centuries. A number of toponyms is reflected the ethnic borders been formerly. For instance, this is adversarial hydronyms Izhora and Slavyanka, oikonyms Russian and Chukharsky Pyatino, different names with the basis "Chud-": Chudskaya, Chudskoye, Chudtsi, Chudskaya Gora, Chudskoy Bor. The majority of rural settlements of the Baltic and Finnish people (Vepses, Karelians) of the Leningrad Oblast along with the official Russian name is kept the traditional name, for example, Veps villages: Radogoshch - Arskaxt, Bobozero - Maygar, Peldushi - Petsoil. As a result of the ethnic language contacting the toponyms - calques (loan translations) like Veps names : Pit'kyarv - Dolgozero, Pikh'yarv - Svyatozero were appeared with the way of the word-for-word translation. Semi-calques like Churruchy, Vonozero are appared as a result of the partial translation. Toponyms, which are unclear for modern people, are explained by them in respect to popular etymology in toponymy legends. There are many toponyms described nature features of the region: physiographic characteristics of objects (Sukhoye, Velye, Goristoye, Krutoy Ruchey, Uzmen, Podporozhye), the colour of them (Zabelye, Cherenka, Cheremenets), the orientation in the region, the relief, soil conditions (Klin, Zhilaya and Pustaya Glina, Ostrov, Pesochnoye), the flora (Dubnyagi, Lipovo, Listvenka, Krapivno, Paporotno, Zamoshye) and fauna (Rybezhka, Vorony Ostrov, Orli, Kurgino (from the Baltic-Finnish basis "Kurg" - a crane), Medvezh'ye). The region population 's mythological notions were reflected in the toponyms like Arbonye ("arbuy" is a pagan shaman of the Baltic and Finnish people), Besovka, Volosovo, Radogoshch. Agricultural activity is traced in the names: Opolye, Terebezhka, Lyadi, Luzhki, Polyanka, Nivi, Novinka. The names Issad, Melnitsa, Lodeynoye Pole talk us about homecrafts of the population. Toponyms "Volozhba, Volochna, Valchenka, Buyani, Bolshoy Dvor, Veliky Dvor, Kharchevni, Yam-Tesovo talk about ways of communications. The social relations were reflected in the names Kanzi (from the Baltic-Finnish basis "Kanz" - family), Smerdi, Knyashchina. Toponyms Gorodishche, Gorodok, Pogostishche, Selishchr, Usadishche, Ves denote the places of ancient settlements. Many names were formed from personal names and last names both from pagan ones and Christian names, both from Slav names and from the Baltic-Finnish ones (Kavgolovo, Dorogoshchi, Solovyevo). Considerable changes in the Leningrad Oblast toponymia system came from the Soviet period. First of all they concerned of oikonyms. New names were appeared both as a result of renaming settlements been before, and appearing new settlements. They often had the ideological focus, sometimes were being the limited period of time. Not only streets but large settlements: Volodarskaya, Kirovsk, Trotsk (the name of Gatchina from 1923 till 1929), Leninskoye, Ilyichevo, settlement named after Sverdlov, Kingisepp, Rakh'ya were named in honour of figures of the revolution movement. Names like Krasny Bronevik, Krasny Bor, Novy Byt, Novy Svet, Kommunar were appeared under the Soviet Power. The Industrial building and founding large agricultural enterprises were assisted to appearing toponyms like Slantsi, Boksitogorsk, Syasstroy, Selkhoztekhnika, Mekhbaza. Settlements having the dissonant names were renamed using more aesthetically beautiful names. Located nearby villages Kobyl'ya Gora and Kobelevo in the Boksitogorsk district were renamed on Krasnaya Rechka and Sosnivy Bor accordingly. The most changes touched the northern part of the Karelian Isthmus which passed from Finland into the Soviet Union after the Soviet-Finland war of 1939-1940. The overwhelming part of toponyms of the Baltic-Finnish origin was disappeared from new maps. Names with the Soviet symbols (Sovetsky, Krasny Ostrov, Pervomayskoye, Kommunari), with the last names of the Soviet soldiers participated in battles on this territory (Vysotsk, Zhitkovo, Kirillovskoye) as well as neutral names (Roshchino, Sosnovo, Svetogorsk, Priozersk, Kamennogorsk, Plodovoye, Privetninskoye) appeared on their place. In the post-Soviet period the returning of former names to renamed settlements of the Leningrad oblast (Petrokrepost - Shlisselburg, Krasny Bronevik - the Antony Dymsky Monastery) was started.

Yegorov, Sergey Borisovich

Leningrad Oblast, the/Boksitogorsk District/Alyeshini Nivi Settlement
Leningrad Oblast, the/Volosovo District/Arbonye Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Tikhvin District/Besovka Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Boksitogorsk District/Bobozero Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Tikhvin District/Bolshoy Dvor Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Luga District/Buyani Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Luga District/Cheremenets Locality
Topographical landmarks/Cherenka River, the
Leningrad Oblast, the/Slantsi District/Chudskaya Gora Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Boksitogorsk District/Chudskaya Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Tikhvin District/Chudskoye Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Tosno District/Chudsky Bor Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Boksitogorsk District/Chudtsi Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Boksitogorsk District/Dorogoshchi Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Kirishi District/Dubnyagi Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Volosovo District/Edazi Village
Neighbouring Territories/Finland
Leningrad Oblast, the/Gatchina District/Gatchina Town
Leningrad Oblast, the/Boksitogorsk District/Glina Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Kirishi District/Gorodishche Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Boksitogorsk District/Gorodok Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Vyborg District/Ilyichevo Settlement
Leningrad Oblast, the/Volkhov District/Issad Village
Topographical landmarks/Izhora River, the
Leningrad Oblast, the/Vyborg District/Kamennogorsk Town
Leningrad Oblast, the/Kirovsk District/Kanzi Village
Topographical landmarks/Karelian Isthmus, the
Topographical landmarks/Karelian Isthmus, the
Leningrad Oblast, the/Vsevolozhsk District/Kavgolovo Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Kingisepp District/Kingisepp Town
Leningrad Oblast, the/Vyborg District/Kirillovskoye Settlement
Leningrad Oblast, the/Slantsi District/Klin Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Volkhov District/Knyashchina Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Gatchina District/Kommunar Town
Leningrad Oblast, the/Priozersk District/Kommunari Settlement
Leningrad Oblast, the/Kirishi District/Krapivno Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Boksitogorsk District/Krashiy Bronevik Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Boksitogorsk District/Krasnaya Rechka Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Boksitogorsk District/Krasniy Bor Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Vyborg District/Krasny Ostrov Settlement (Red Island Settlement)
Leningrad Oblast, the/Boksitogorsk District/Krutoy Ruchey Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Gatchina District/Kurgino Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Vyborg District/Leninskoye Settlement
Leningrad Oblast, the/Boksitogorsk District/Listvenka Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Lodeynoye Pole District/Lodeynoye Pole Town
Leningrad Oblast, the/Luga District/Luzhki Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Gatchina District/Lyadi Village
Historical Toponyms/Mariyenburg
Historical Toponyms/Mariyengof
Leningrad Oblast, the/Luga District/Medvezhye Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Gatchina District/Melnitsa Village
Topographical landmarks/Narva River, the
Leningrad Oblast, the/Gatchina District/Novinka Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Kirovsk District/Noviy Byt Settlement, Railway Station
Leningrad Oblast, the/Gatchina District/Noviy Svet Settlement
Leningrad Oblast, the/Kingisepp District/Opolye Village
Saint-Petersburg City/Lomonosov Town/Oraniyenbaum Railway Station
Topographical landmarks/Oredezh River, the
Leningrad Oblast, the/Kingisepp District/Orli Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Volkhov District/Ostrov Village (Island Village)
Leningrad Oblast, the/Volkhov District/Paporotno Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Podporozhye District/Peldushi Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Vyborg District/Pervomayskoye Settlement
Leningrad Oblast, the/Vyborg District/Pesochnoye Settlement
Saint-Petersburg City/Peterhof Town
Leningrad Oblast, the/Priozersk District/Plodovoye Settlement.
Leningrad Oblast, the/Podporozhye District/Podporozhye Town
Leningrad Oblast, the/Volkhov District/Pogostishche Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Lodeynoye Pole District/Polyanka Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Priozersk District/Priozersk Town
Leningrad Oblast, the/Vyborg District/Privetninskoye Settlement
Leningrad Oblast, the/Boksitogorsk District/Radogoshch Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Boksitogorsk District/Radogoshch Village
Topographical landmarks/Ragusha River, the
Leningrad Oblast, the/Vsevolozhsk District/Rakh'ya Urban Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Vyborg District/Roshchino Urban Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Boksitogorsk District/Rybezhka Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Volosovo District/Selishche Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Shlisselburg Town
Topographical landmarks/Shoksha River, the
Leningrad Oblast, the/Slantsi District/Slantsi Town
Topographical landmarks/Slavyanka River, the
Leningrad Oblast, the/Luga District/Smerdi Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Volkhov District/Solovyevo Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Boksitogorsk District/Sosnoviy Bor Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Priozersk District/Sosnovo Settlement
Leningrad Oblast, the/Vyborg District/Sovetsky Urban Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Kirovsk District/Sukhoye Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Vyborg District/Svyatogorsk Town
Topographical landmarks/Syas River, the
Topographical landmarks/Terebezhka River, the
Leningrad Oblast, the/Boksitogorsk District/Usadishche Village
Historical Toponyms/Uzigonti
Topographical landmarks/Valchenka River, the
Leningrad Oblast, the/Boksitogorsk District/Velikiy Dvor Settlement
Leningrad Oblast, the/Boksitogorsk District/Velye Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Volkhov District/Ves Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Volkhov District/Volosovo Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Tikhvin District/Volozhba Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Tosno District/Voroniy Ostrov Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Vyborg District/Vyborg Town
Leningrad Oblast, the/Vyborg District/Vysotsk Town
Topographical landmarks/Yavosma River, the
Leningrad Oblast, the/Boksitogorsk District/Zabelye Village (of Samoylovskaya Volost)
Leningrad Oblast, the/Boksitogorsk District/Zamoshye Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Vyborg District/Zhitkovo Settlement

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