Ethnic culture/Ethnic communities
Finno-Ugric nations are ethnic communities speaking the languages of the Finno-Ugric group which is a part (together with the Samoyedic and Yukaghir groups) of the Ural (Uralic-Yukaghir) language family. Finno-Ugric nations have lived historically on the territory of the Russian Federation, Finland (Finns, Sami), Latvia (Lives), Estonia (Estonians), Hangary (Hungarians), Norway (Sami), Sweden (Sami). In linguists' opinion the parent Uralic language community was fixed in the Mesolithic Period (the 9th - the 6th millenium BC). According to anthropological data Finno-Ugric nations were formed on the territory located between the areas of the Caucasoid and Mongoloid races. Afterwards settling in different geographical zones of Northeastern Europe and Western Siberia, contacts with neighbours from other ethnic groups (native speakers of Indo-European and Turkic languages) caused considerable differences in the anthropological type, economy, culture, languages of Finno-Ugric nations. In the middle of the 3th millenium BC isolation of the Ugric branch (ancestors of Khanty, Mansi, Hungarians) took place. In the 1st millenium BC some branches stood out : the Volgaic branch (ancestors of Mordvins and Mari), the Permic branch (ancestors of Komi-Zyryans, Komi-Permyaks, Udmurts), the Baltic-Finnic branch (ancestors of Veps, Votes, Izhora, Finns of Ingermanlandia, Karelians, Livs, Setu, Finns, Estonians). A special branch Sami formed. In European Russia Finno-Ugric nations are Connected with such archaeological cultures as: Dyakovo (Dyakovskaya) culture (the 2nd half of the 1st millenium BC - the 1st half of the 1st millenium AD, the basin of Upper Volga River, the Oka River, the Valdai Upland), Gorodetskaya culture (the 7th century BC - the 5th century AD, regions of middle stream and downstream of the Oka River, Middle Volga Region, basins of the Moksha and Tsna rivers), Ananian culture (the 8th - the 3d centuries BC, the basin of the Kama River and partly the Middle Volga, Vyatka and Balyay rivers), Pyanoborskaya culture (the 2nd century BC - the 5th century AD, the basin of the Kama River). On the territory of the Leningrad Oblast the nations speaking the Baltic -Finnic languages (Veps, Votes, Izhora, Finns of Ingermanlandia, Karelians, Finns, Estonians) have lived. They are related to the White Sea - Baltic type (race) of the European race. See also: Veps, Votes, Izhora, Finns of Ingermanlandia, Karelians, Estonians.
Tripolskaya, Anna Aleksandrovna
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Finns of Ingermanlandia
Izhora (Izhora men)