Articles / Gulf of Finland, the

Gulf of Finland, the

Subject / Topography/Reservoirs and waterways

GULF OF FINLAND, in the eastern part of the Baltic Sea. Area: about 29,800 sq. km (7% of the Baltic Sea area.) Length: 400 km (from the Khanko Peninsula to SPb.) Max. width: 130 km (near the western border of Leningrad Oblast, at the meridian of the Moschny Island.) In the Neva Bay (so-called apex of G. o. F.) the width is 15-20 km, and at the Khanko Peninsula, (so-called neck of G. o. F.) it is 70-75 km. Max. depth: 123 m, average depth: abt. 40 m. The eastern part of the Gulf is shallow (av. depth = 7 m.) The bed has a hilly and ridged relief; in the eastern part, due to great quantities of deposit material carried away by rivers, the bed consists of well-leveled accumulative plains. The Neva, Luga, and Narova rivers flow into G. o. F. Catchment area: 421,000 sq. m. The Saimaa Canal connected G. o. F. to lakes of Eastern Finland. In Leningrad Oblast, G. o. F. has several minor gulfs, among which the largest are the Narva Bay, Koporye Bay, Vyborg Bay, and Luga Bay. The Neva Bay makes the eastern part of G. o. F. The great inflow of fresh water determines low water salinity that is 6% (surface waters salinity is 2-3%), which is lower than in the Baltic Sea. The principal islands in Leningrad Oblast are Bolshoy Beryozovy, Zapadny Beryozovy, Severny Beryozovy, Vysotsky, Moschny; in SPb, Kotlin. Ice is formed in G. o. F. in December, and melts in April (110-130 days on the average.) The northern shore is rocky, and has many skerries. The southern and eastern shores are low. The lowland along the southern shore of G. o. F. is limited by a klint consisting of flat terraces rising upwards in steps and representing the shore of an ancient sea. In the early Middle Ages, the “Trade road from the Varangians to the Greeks” extended via the G. o. F. In Leningrad Oblast, on the G. o. F. coast are the cities of Vyborg, Vysotsk, Primorsk, Sosnovy Bor; in Finland, Helsinki, Kotka, Lovisa; in Estonia, Tallinn, Kohtla-Jarve, Paldiski. Shipping is developing. Main ports: SPb, Vyborg (Russia), Tallinn (Estonia), Helsinki, Kotka (Finland.) Port facilities are under construction in way of Ust-Luga Village and Primorsk Town. Since 1978, a complex St. Petersburg flood protection facilities (The Dam) has been under construction.) The gulf shore has a recreational function. In Leningrad Oblast, the coastal area is popular with ice fishing fans. In recent years, underwater archeology research as been developing.

Chistyakov, Anton Yuryevich

First year

Topographical landmarks/Bolshoy Beryozovy Island
Neighbouring Territories/Finland
Topographical landmarks/Khanko Peninsula, the
Topographical landmarks/Koporsky Bay, the
Topographical landmarks/Luga Bay, the
Topographical landmarks/Luga River, the
Topographical landmarks/Moshchny Island
Topographical landmarks/Narva River, the
Topographical landmarks/Narva, Gulf of , the
Topographical landmarks/Neva Bay, the
Topographical landmarks/Neva River, the
Leningrad Oblast, the/Vyborg District/Primorsk Town
Topographical landmarks/Saymensky Canal, the
Topographical landmarks/Severny Beryozovy Island
Leningrad Oblast, the/Sosnovy Bor Town
Leningrad Oblast, the/Kingisepp District/Ust-Luga Settlement
Topographical landmarks/Vyborg Bay, the
Leningrad Oblast, the/Vyborg District/Vyborg Town
Leningrad Oblast, the/Vyborg District/Vysotsk Town
Topographical landmarks/Vysotsky Island
Topographical landmarks/Zapadny Beryozovy Island

Евгеньев Г.Е. По Финскому заливу: Путеводитель. М., 1964
Гидрометеорология и гидрохимия морей СССР. Т. 3: Балтийское море. СПб., 1992
Антонов А.Е. Настоящее и будущее Балтики (долгосрочный метеорологический прогноз). СПб., 1994
Глазкова Е. А. Флора островов восточной части Финского залива: Состав и анализ. СПб., 2001.

Subject Index
Trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks