Articles / Protection of monuments of history and culture

Protection of monuments of history and culture

Subject / Architecture

The protection of history and culture monuments. Issues of the monuments protection are germane to the degree of their studying, right description and fixing. In Russia, the beginnings of interest in monuments of native antiquity were reflected in the decrees "O dostavlenii svedeny ob drevnikh zdany I o vosprshchenii razrushat oniye" ("About providing information on remains of ancient buildings in cities and banning the demolition of them", 1826), and "O sokhranenii drevnikh zdany v guberniyakh" ("About preserving ancient buildings in gubernias", 1827). During 1836-1840 the Analysis Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs made "Azbuchny spisok vsem tserkvam, mestechkam, seleniyam, pogostam I derevnyam Novgorodskoy, Pskovskoy I Olonetskoy guberny" ("The Alphabetical List of All Churches, Places, Settlements, Pogosts and Villages od the Novgorod, Pskov and Olonets Gubernias"). A part of historic monuments, first of all monuments of fortess architecture, was included into "Kratkoye istoriko-statisticheskoye opisaniye Sankt Peterburgskoy gubernii" ("The Brief Historical Statistical Description of the St. Petersburg Gubernia") by I.I. Pushkarev (1845). From 1856 problems of the monuments protection were engaged by the Archaeology Commission that has paid the publication of N.E. Brandenburg's monograph about Staraya Ladoga in 1896. The great contribution to studying this monument of the ancient Russian culture was given with descriptions of the fortress and the Church of St. George the Victorious, the Great Martyr that were made by V.V. Suslov. A numbe od data about medieval fortresses are contained in "Materiali dlya istorii inzhenernogo ickusstva Rossii" ("Materials for the History of Engineering Art of Russia", 1858-1865). Church architectural sights, that are located on the territory of the modern Leningrad Oblast, are noted in "Polnoye sobraniye istoricheskikh svedeny o vsekh byvshikh v drevnosti I nyne sushchestvuyushchikh monastyryakh I primechatelnykh tserkvakh v Rossii" ("The Complete Set of Historic Data about All Monasteries, that existed at ancient times and are existing now, and remarcable churches in Russia", 1852) and particularly in "istoriko-statisticheskiye svedeniya o S. Peterburgskoy yeparkhii" ("Historical and Statistical Data about St. Peterburg eparchy", issues from 1 to 10, 1869-1885). Churches - monuments of wooden architecture on the territory of the Olonets Gubernia (a part of the Olonets Gubernia is included into the leningrad Oblast on our days) were included in the list "Statisticheskiyr svedeniya o naselennikh punktakh Olonetskoy gubernii" ("Statistical Data about settlements of the Olonets Gubernia", 1860) and in works by L.V. Dal (1876), a researcher of ancient Russian architecture, and others. The description of some tent-shaped churches on the territory of the present-day Lodeynoye Pole District is contained in the first part of "Kurs istorii russkoy arkhitekturi" ("The Course of the History of Russian Architecture", 1916) by M.V. Krasovsky. In 1905 at the Ministry of Internal Affairs a Comission for developing the law about the protection of monuments was founded, but the appropriate law has not been had time to pass. Estates were private and it impeded to studying, the state protection and the registration of monuments of estate construction. Before the revolution data about estates on the gubernia territory were published in the magazines "Iskusstvo I khudozhestvennaya promyshlennost" ("Art and Art Industry"), "Stariye godi" ("Old Years"), "Stolitsa I usadba" ("the Capital and Esatate") and others. The purpose of the Soviet authorities first decrees: "O registratsii, priyeme na uchet I okhranenii pamyatnikov iskusstva I starini, nakhodyashchikhsya vo vladenii chastnykh lits, obshchestv I uchrezhdeniy" ("About registration and protection of art and olden time monuments that are belonged to private persons, societies and institutions", 1918) and "Ob uchete I registratsii predmetov iskusstva I starini" ("About registration and making an inventory of art and olden time items", 1923) was finding out the art things, the most of these things was sold abroad by the state. During the period of the expanded local history movement from 1924 to 1927 architectural ensembles of Staraya Ladoga, Koporye, Shlisselburg, Tikhvin, about 30 monuments od wooden architecture in the Lodeynoye Pole, Volkhov, Tikhvin Districts, estates on the banks of the Neva River: Pella, Mednoye, Ostrovki were registrated in the inventory. A little later the Institute of Material Culture suggested to include 43 estates else including Maryino, Taitsi, Yelizavetino and others. Measuring and photographing the monuments and estates was made by the Society of Local History Studing. In 1928 the Institute Of Arts History, the Russian Museum and the Central Archive organized an exhibition of the Russian Provincial Architecture where materials of the Leningrad Oblast were presented. From the late 1920s this work began to decline. At the same time a majority of historical estates were used with utilitarian purposes (for kolkhozes' administrations, military camps, recreation centres, pioneers' camps and others) , it has inflicted them irreparable injury. Many monuments of the church architecture were destroyed during the atheism campaign of the 1930s - 1960s. The great damage to the historic heritage was done during the years of the World War II in the territories which were occupied by Germans and were in the zone of operations. After the war the recovery works were often conducted without the preliminary historical and archaeological researches. In 1966 the All-Russian Society of the History and Gulture Monuments Protection was founded (see: the Society of the History and Gulture Monuments Protection, the oblast branch). It was very important for organizing researches and restoration of more then 700 buildings which are included in lists of the protecting oblast monuments. In 1970 the Government approved the list of cities and inhabited localities of the RSFSR which are the property of the native culture. The list incuded towns of Gatchina, Tikhvin, Vyborg, Priozersk, Staraya Ladoga, Ivangorod and Kingisepp. The law of the USSR "Ob okhrabe I ispolzovanii pamyatnikov istorii I kulturi" ("About protection and using the monuments of history and culture") was passed only in 1976. According the Russian Federation President's decree of 5 May 1997 in the Leningrad Oblast there are 300 monuments of the federal importance. The status of protected monuments does not guarantee their good condition; during last years some unique objects: the Church of St. George the Victorious, the Great Martyr in Novaya Ladoga, the palace in Ropsha, the estate building in the village of Skreblovo and others were lost.

Piryutko, Yuri Minayevich

Brandenburg, Nikolay Yefimovich
Dal, Lev Vladimirovich
Krasovsky, Mikhail Vitoldovich
Pushkarev, Ivan Ilyich
Suslov, Vladimir Vasilyevich

Leningrad Oblast, the/Gatchina District/Gatchina Town
Leningrad Oblast, the/Ivangorod Town
Leningrad Oblast, the/Kingisepp District/Kingisepp Town
Leningrad Oblast, the/Lomonosov District/Koporye Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Lodeynoye Pole District
Leningrad Oblast, the/Volkhov District/Novaya Ladoga Town
Historical Toponyms/Novgorod Gubernia (Province)
Historical Toponyms/Olonets Gubernia (Province)
Leningrad Oblast, the/Priozersk District/Priozersk Town
Historical Toponyms/Pskov Gubernia
Leningrad Oblast, the/Lomonosov District/Ropsha Settlement
Historical Toponyms/Saint Petersburg Gubernia, the
Leningrad Oblast, the/Shlisselburg Town
Leningrad Oblast, the/Luga District/Skreblovo Settlement
Leningrad Oblast, the/Volkhov District/Staraya Ladoga Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Tikhvin District/Tikhvin Town
Leningrad Oblast, the/Vyborg District/Vyborg Town

Гоголицын Ю.М., Гоголицына Т.М. Памятники архитектуры Ленинградской области. Л., 1987.
Всероссийское общество охраны памятников истории и культуры. URL:

Subject Index
Elizavetino, a country estate
Maryino, a country estate
Mednoye, a country estate
Ostrovki, a country estate
Pella, a palace ensemble
Ropsha palace-and-park ensemble
Rozhdestveno, a country estate
Society for the Protection of History and Culture Monuments, an oblast branch
Staraya Ladoga Fortress
Taitsi, a country estate
The Church of St. George the Victorius, Great Martyr (Staraya Ladoga Village, Volkhov District)