Articles / Country estates

Country estates

Subject / Architecture

Country estates. In the early 20th century on the territory of the modern Leningrad Oblast there were 2000 country estates. Mainly they appeared at one time with St. Petersburg. There were not many "Family nests" that belonged to one family and passed from one generation to another. Estates owners often changed and under the new owner the estate appearance sometimes changed entirely. Many estates were representative offices and did not have important practical significance for owners who had vast lands in other parts of the country. However there were great economy complexes with cattle-yards, stables, storehouses, hothouses, agricultural grounds. Among estates in St. Petersburg region there were real masterpieces that were not inferior to famous tsar's residences. They were Ropsha of the Lazarevs'; Gostilitsi of the Razumovskys' and the Potyemkins'; Taitsi and Sivoritsi of the Demidovs'; Ryabovo of the Vsevolozhskys'; Osinovaya Roshcha of the Lopukhins'; Monrepo of the Barony Nikolais'; Maryino of the stroganovs'; Dylitsi (yelizavetino) of the Trubetskoys'. Many famous architects of the Russian architecture: A.V. Kvasov, S.I. Chevakinsky, Yu.M. Felten, A. de la Porto, F.I. Volkov, I.Ye. Starov, L. Ruska, N.A. Lvov, A.N. Voronikhin, V.I. Beretti, A.I. Melnikov, A.P. Bryullov, A.I. Shtakenschneider, G.A. Bosse, P.S. Sadovnikov, N.L. Benois, A.I. Krakau; gardeners: T. Grey, V. Guld, G.I. Engelman, P.I. Erler and other took part in forming these estates. Features of the early classicism style ( Taitsi, Sivoritsi), the Empire style (Maryino, Kotli, Rozhdestveno), the Eclecticism style (Lisino-Korpus, Kramorskaya, Torosovo) were reflected in the architecture of estate mansions. The landscape English style was predominated over planning the estate parks. This style was ideally matched to the features of the North nature with many water reservoirs, vast meadows and small hill locality. In the late 19th - the early 20th centures impressive estate complexes in the Modernism and Neo-classicism style appeared on the south of the region. They belonged to the new financial magnates: Rapti belonged to the Polovtsevs, Borovoye in the Luga district - to the Lvovs, Belogorka near Siverskaya belonged to the Fomin-Yeliseyevs and others. Estates connected with the names of prominent workers of culture and science, state and military men, businessmen: M.V. Lomonosov (ust-Ruditsa), A.P. Gannibal (Suida), A.N. Olenin (Priyutino), A.R. Tomilov (Uspenskoye), K.F. Ryleyev (Batovo), I.I. Pushchin (Pushchina Gorka), Yu.F. Lisyansky (Kobrino), A.K. Tolstoy (Pustynka), K.I. Bistrom (Romanovka), V.D. Polenov (Imochenitsi), M.N. Muravyev (Syrets), A.D. Zinovyev (Grevova), A.L. Shtigliys (Kramorskaya), V.V. Nabokov (Vyra, Rozhdestveno), N.K. Roerich (Izvara), Lopukhinka- the unique balneotherapeutic health resort and others have the great memorial importance. Near estates, as a rule, there were churches, many of them had the great art values (the churches of the Blessed Trinity in the villages of Maryino and Pyataya Gora, the Church of the Vladimir Icon of the Mother of God in the village of Dylitsi, the church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker in the village of Belogorka, the church of the Procession of the Precios Wood of the Life-giving Cross of the Lord in the settlement of Lisino-Korpus, and others). The systematic study of the estates as cultural and historical monuments was not conducted before the revolution, however some articles were published (for example: "Istoriya odnogo doma" ("The History of One House") by N.N. Vrangel about Mariyenhof Rezvykh in the Yamburg uyezd, 1910). In the 1920s about 50 estates were inspected. At the same time the devastation and degradation of estates was begun, it was the result of the nationalization and confiscation of art treasures. Landowners' estates often became farm centres of sovkhozes and kolkhozes, mahor-houses were used for placing different establishments, schools, children's homes, hospitals, health centres, rest homes, military units. During some times the rare exception was the estate of Maryino which was declared the museum because of its art and history significance (the museum was broken up in the 1930s). Excellent works of arts and crafts, painting and sculpture decorated estate mansions, unique libraries were usually plundered. Small lot of them was fallen into museums of local history or removed into Leningrad. Many estates were ruined and destroyed during the German occupation of the vast part of the Leningrad Oblast since 1941 till 1944. After World War II the restoration of some mansions (see the article "Restovratsiya arkhitekturnikh pamyatnikov" (The restoration of Architecture Monuments) was made, however the integrated restoration was not made. Estates' hydraulics were not repaired, park green plantations were not put into rights. Estate parks remains vanished rapidly. In the 1960-1970s the serious work on revealing estates, many of them were not known, were done by the experts of the Oblast Inspectorate on the Protection of Memorials at the Institute Spetsproektrestovratsiya (Special Restoration Projects). The fundamental reviews made by N.V. Murashova and L.P. Myslina about estates of the Leningrad Oblast became the results of the studies taken up during many years. Some of the reviews were partly published in the magazine "Leningradskaya panorama" ("The Leningrad panorama") and as several editions (on the Luga, Lomonosov, Kingisepp, Vsevolozhsk districts). Murashova's book "Sto dvoryanskikh usadeb Sankt Peterburgskoy gubernii" ("100 Nobles Estates of St. Petersburg Gubernia", 2005) became the original requiem so it established many facts of vandalism. Many estates survaived during the war years are perished at our days as a result of indifference, mismanagement, irresponsibility. Valuable memorials of the wooden classicism in the settlement Skreblovo abd the village of Kobrino were burned. The unique park ensemble of the estate of Rapti was brought into full destruction. In the settlement of Ropsha the palace, restored after the war, was destroyed. The manor-house in Belogorka, that was in the good condition still in the 1960s, is in the emergency condition now. The state system of the protection of the federal importance showed its little effectiveness. In the 2000s attempts of passing estates to private people and companies for long leasing are made. These people and companies are required to restore palaces and parks of the leasing estates. Now estates in the villages of Rozhdestveno and Dylitsi (Yelizavetino) are restored.

Piryutko, Yuri Minayevich

Benois, Nikolay Aleksandrovich
Beretti, Vikenty Ivanovich
Bistrom, Karl Ivanovich
Bosse, Yuly Andreyevich (Gerald Ernest)
Bryullov, Aleksandr Pavlovich
Chevakinsky, Savva Ivanovich
Demidovs, the
Engelman, Grigory Ivanovich
Erler, Pyotr Ivanovich
Felten, Yuri (George Friedrich) Maqtveyevich
Fomin -Eliseyevs, The
Grey, Thomas
Guld, William
Hannibal, Abraham (Ibrahim) Petrovich
Krakau, George Alexandr (Aleksandr Ivanovich)
Kvasov, Aleksey Vasilyevich
Lazarevs, the
Lisyansky, Yuri Fyodorovich
Lomonosov, Mikhail Vasilyevich
Lopukhins, The
Lvov, Nikolay Aleksandrovich
Lvovs, the
Melnikov, Abraham Ivanovich
Murashova (Glinka), Nona Vasilyevna
Muravyev, Mikhail Nikolayevich, Count
Myslina, Lina Petrovna
Nabokov, Vladimir Vladimirovich
Nicolais, the, Barons
Olenin, Aleksey Nokolayevich
Polenov, Vasily Dmitriyevich
Polovtevs, The
Porto, Antonio
Potyomkins, The
Pushchin, Ivan Ivanovich
Razumovskys, the
Roerich, Nikolay Konstantinovich
Rusca, Luigi
Ryleyev, Kondraty Fyodorovich
Sadovnikov, Pyotr Semyonovich
Stakenschneider, Andrey Ivanovich
Starov, Ivan Yegorovich
Stiglitz, Aleksandr Ludwigovich, Baron
Stroganovs, the
Tolstoy, Aleksey Konstantinovich, Count
Tomilov, Aleksey Romanovich
Trubetskys, the
Volkov, Fyodor Ivanovich
Voronikhin, Andrey Nikiforovich
Vsevolozhskys, the
Wrangel, Nikolay Hikolayevich, Baron
Zinovyev, Aleksandr Dmitriyevich

Leningrad Oblast, the/Gatchina District/Belogorka Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Gatchina District/Dylitsi Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Kingisepp District
Leningrad Oblast, the/Gatchina District/Kobrino Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Tosno District/Lisino-Korpus Settlement
Leningrad Oblast, the/Lomonosov District
Leningrad Oblast, the/Luga District
Leningrad Oblast, the/Volosovo District/Pyataya Gora Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Lomonosov District/Ropsha Settlement
Leningrad Oblast, the/Gatchina District/Rozhdestveno Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Gatchina District/Siversky Urban Settlement
Leningrad Oblast, the/Luga District/Skreblovo Settlement
Leningrad Oblast, the/Vsevolozhsk District
Historical Toponyms/Saint Petersburg Gubernia, the/Yamburg Uyezd

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Subject Index
Batovo, a country estate
Belogorka, a country estate
Borovoye, a country estate
Dylitsi, a country estate
Gostilitsi, a country estate
Grevova, a country estate
Imochenitsi, a country estate
Izvara, a country estate
Kobrino, a country estate
Kotli, a country estate
Kramorskaya, a country estate
Lisino-Korpus, a country estate
Lopukhinka, a country estate
Marienhof, a country estate
Maryino, a country estate
Monrepo, a country estate
Osinovaya Roshcha, a country estate
"Priyutino", a literary and art estate-museum
Pushchina Gorka, a country estate
Pustunka, a country estate
Rapti, a country estate
Restoration of buildings of architectural and historic interest.
Romanovka, a country estate
Ropsha, a country estate
Rozhdestveno, a country estate
Ryabovo, a country estate
Sivoritsi, a country estate
Suida, a country estate
Syrets, a country estate
Taitsi, a country estate
The Church of Sainted Hierach Nicholas the Wonderworker (Belogorka Village)
The Church of the Holy Trinity ( Pyataya Gora, country estate)
The Church of the Holy Trinity (Andrianovo Village, Tosno District)
The Church of the Procession of the Venerable and Life-Giving Cross of the Lord (Lisino-Korpus Settlement, Tosno District)
The Church of the Vladimir Icon of the Mother of God (Yelizavetino Village, Gatchina District)
"The Fifth Hill", a country estate
Torosovo, a country estate
Uspenskoye, a country estate
Ust-Ruditsa, a country estate
Vyra, a country estate